Writing and Communication Center

Chicago Style Formatting

Please note that there are two primary ways to use Chicago Style: Notes and Bibliography, and Author/Date. This webpage and the attached handout cover the Notes and Bibliography format. For information on Author/Date citation, please refer to The Chicago Manual of Style online.

The Chicago Notes-Bibliography System of citation is used primarily in literature, history, art history, and the arts. The most recent edition of The Chicago Manual of Style is the 16th Edition, which was published in 2010. The Chicago NB (Notes-Bibliography) system uses footnotes or endnotes within the text and a Bibliography at the end. The footnotes or endnotes (hereafter “notes”) are marked in the text by a superscript number which corresponds to the note.

Chicago: Notes and Bibliography System

In the Notes and Bibliography system, citations are generally provided in the main text through the use of footnotes or endnotes. In addition, a bibliography provides complete information on the works cited and may also refer to other works consulted. One of the strengths of the Notes and Bibliography system is its flexibility; see chapter 16 of the Chicago Manual of Style for more details.

Differences between notes and bibliography entries:

Order of names: in the note, the author’s name is First, Middle Initial, Last; in the bibliography, it is Last, First, Middle Initial.

Indentation: In the note, the first line is indented one space. In the bibliography, a hanging indent is used, where the second and subsequent lines of the entry are indented to the right.

Notes are numbered, bibliography entries are alphabetized.

Examples of Notes and Bibliographic Entries by Source

Chicago In-Text Citations

In the Notes and Bibliography system, citations are generally provided in the main text through the use of footnotes or endnotes.

The superscript number is the equivalent to the parenthetical citation. Place the superscript number outside of any sentence punctuation.


"The life and work of Henry James offer a wealth of impressions to readers with eyes for the unconventional: the author and many of his male characters defy stereotypes of masculinity, asking in their varied voices if culture allows for deviation." 1


1. Kelly Cannon, Henry James and Masculinity: The Man at the Margins (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994), 1.

Footnotes are in the same style as endnotes. There is no difference in the contents of footnotes and endnotes. The simple difference is that footnotes appear at the end of the page where the footnote number appears, and endnotes are placed at the end of your paper.

Chicago Handout
Most of your questions about Notes/Bibliography style are answered on this printable handout.

Purdue OWL: Chicago Sample Paper

Additional Chicago Resources

Notes/Bibliography Handout

  Click here for a quick
  reference handout on
  citation methods.


DC1 Oppenheimer & Gustafson Students:

   Please refer to the 
   Chicago Manual of
   Style Online
   information on how to
   use Author/Date style.